Perspectives on Business and Economics, Vol. 40

77 protections for subsistence that align with Alaska Natives’ inherent rights to the land. Alaska Natives are deeply connected to the land. The subsistence rules failed due to the state’s refusal to cooperate. Subsistence rights are a legal issue that necessitates innovative and strategic thinking, in particular legal and policymaking with Congress, the state, and the Department of the Interior. The second recommendation is consideration of the cultural significance of land for Alaska Natives. Before colonization, they had a very different notion of land ownership. As one Native leader described that concept, “the notion of private ownership was alien to most of our people. We had lived throughout the length and breadth of Alaska, using the land as our forefathers had; becoming intimate with its ways as it nurtured our existence, [in this manner] land would belong to a leader and his family in a loose sense.” In that view, the land belonged to the Natives as much as they belonged to it (Anderson, 2016). Much needed legislation that clarifies the federal responsibility for Native lands would be essential in protecting Alaska Native interests in ANCSA. Researchers can consider conducting a sociological and anthropological study of the Alaska Native communities to better understand how these communities perceive “land ownership” and assess how future laws can be designed with this as a guiding framework. The third recommendation involves an approach that the United Nations has termed “sustainable development” (United Nations…, 2015). Indigenous peoples around the world have believed for decades that any actions they take should consider the effects on descendants—the following seven generations. Regarding sustainable development, the seventh generation paradigm is gaining traction. Environmental degradation, depletion of natural resources, energy shortages, pollution, population growth, and traffic congestion are just a few of the difficulties with which societies around the world are dealing. A United Nations commission studied the effects of development on populations around the world in 1987 and provided its definition of sustainability, which has since become the most widely used definition and fully reflects the seventh generation philosophy held by many American Indian and Alaska Native peoples for centuries: “a sustainable society meets the needs of the present without sacrificing the ability of future generations to meet their own needs” (Davis, 2007). Sustainable development necessitates deliberate efforts to create a future for people and the world that is equitable, renewable, and robust. It is critical to balance three basic factors in order to accomplish sustainable development: economic growth, social inclusion, and environmental protection. These factors are intertwined, and they are all necessary for both individual and collective well-being, especially so for Native Alaskans. The outcome document from the 2012 Rio+20 conference, The Future We Want, explicitly stressed “the importance of the participation of indigenous peoples in the achievement of sustainable development” (United Nations, 2012). Some ANCs have come closer to sustainable development than others; the latter should be encouraged to follow in the former’s footsteps. Conclusion ANCSA has been a landmark piece of legislation. There have been multiple advantages to ANCSA, chief among them the increased independence of Alaska Natives. The act created long-term communal institutions that have helped maintain and nurture Alaska Native communities. ANCSA provided the regional and village corporations clear title to settlement land, thereby increasing Native Alaskan sovereignty and leading to socioeconomic growth for these communities. Another benefit is that the law has provided concrete legal protection for Alaska Natives. The Alaska Corporations Code (Anderson, 2016) constitutes the precise body of law that outlines the rights and obligations of ANCs. Compared to noncorporate entities that represent Native Americans in the contiguous United States, the regional corporations in Alaska have more precise definitions and better leverage in legal disputes. Moreover, the regional corporations have preserved Native Alaskan culture by funding dance groups, heritage centers, and tribal language educational programs. Although many experts throughout the decades, since the passage of ANCSA, have doubted the success of the regional