Perspectives on Business and Economics, Vol. 40

101 the state. Most management activities were conducted by the ADFG throughout 2010– 2020 and were made adaptable and swift, a result of this invasive predator believed to be a major contributor to decreases in juvenile salmon populations. The adaptive management actions included suppression, eradication, and outreach efforts, with ongoing reprioritization of management efforts based on an ADFG scoring matrix, which considered restoration benefits and future prevention. Such actions led to almost complete eradication of the invasive pike population from the Kenai Peninsula and Anchorage regions, at a total cost estimated at $5M (Dunker et al., 2020). Although seemingly large, the economic value of the program to fisheries, especially salmon valued at $643.9M for the 2021 season alone, is far greater as native commercial populations will face less predation in their natural waters for years to come (Earl, 2021). An additional example would be the passing of state legislation in 2021 that allowed for Alaskan hatcheries to supplement the wild stock of crab and various shellfish, which may be necessary going forward, with such a program introducing juvenile crab to ocean waters post–larvae development, where they are most susceptible to acidification-related mortality. This intervention for key economic species had been suggested since the early 1990s yet was previously rejected due to concerns of mixing this long-living species with existing populations, with little supporting evidence of success due to lack of research. However, as recent oceanic data have become more available and accepted, it has become clear that intervention was worth attempting where results are still unknown (Smiley, 2021). Despite the practical and political challenges of implementing adaptive measures, national and state agencies in Alaska have taken some steps to make natural resource management more adaptive, yet more has to be done. Adaptive management has emerged organically, but at a pace too slow to alleviate climate-related concerns. Even though this type of management style goes against the status quo of traditional methods, adaptive management is needed at all levels of control, particularly within state and federal fishery regulation bodies, as most commercial opportunities occur in their oversight waters. To make a transition realistic, instability must be eliminated through federal conservation law rather than executive orders. At the same time, practical barriers could be minimized through state and federal incentives to industry stakeholders who must swiftly adjust target species as needed. While a transition may dampen economic output in the near term, such action is necessary for long-term prosperity and preservation of Alaskan fisheries for years to come. Conclusion Commercial fishing is a fundamental component of Alaska’s culture, a strong industry for the state’s economy, and a notable supplier of the world’s seafood supply. The seafood industry of Alaska constituted $5.6B in economic output annually throughout 2017 and 2018 and generates more than 100,000 full-time equivalent jobs along the production chain, but this prosperity may be jeopardized in the not too distant future due to climate change–induced effects on the state’s fisheries if industry leaders do not adapt. In terms of conventional sustainability, Alaska’s current management infrastructure is considered top tier on the global scale due to efforts between state and federal management organizations, strict federal law adherence, and the principles of sustainability being at the core of the Alaska state constitution. Climate change–induced effects have led to noticeable temperature increases, rising sea levels, depleting ice volume, and increased water acidification, among other variables. The extent of these changes is not entirely known and is still researched today; to add complications, oceanographic changes have been found to result in varying consequences for differing species. Due to such rapid change, dynamic management is needed through collaboration of state and federal entities, through joint research, and through oversight efforts to bring Alaska to a climate-ready position. Of the major seafood products essential to the Alaskan commercial fishing industry, shellfish including crab are at significant risk due to increased vulnerability to acidification, which has led in part to annual decreases in population. Salmon are expected to experience decreases in relative size but increases in availability, while pollock