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Mitigating the Effects of COVID-19 on Wage Earnings for Female Domestic Workers in the Informal Economy in Ecuador and Brazil 41 3. Global Voices. “ ‘Invisible Hands:’ How Millions of Do- mestic Workers Fare under Covid-19.” Business Stan- dard , 30 July 2020. 4. ILOStat, Unemployment by Age and Sex. November 2020. 5. International Labour Organization (ILO a). C189— Domestic Workers Convention. 2011. 6. International Labour Union (ILO b). Impact of Lockdown Measures on the Informal Economy. 5 May 2020. 7. Ñopo, Hugo, & Gallardo, Lourdes. “Ethnic and Gender Wage Gaps in Ecuador.” SSRN , 25 April 2011. 8. OECD. Latin American Economic Outlook 2020: Digital Transformation for Building Back Better. 24 September 2020. 9. Packard, Truman, et al. In from the Shadow: Integrating Europe’s Informal Labor. Washington, D.C.: World Bank, 2012. 10. Prates, Ian,&Barbosa,RogérioJ. “TheImpactofCOVID-19 in Brazil: LabourMarket and Social Protection Respons- es.” The Indian Journal of Labour Economics , Vol. 63, no. 3, 2020, pp. 1–5. 11. Tokman, Victor. Domestic Workers in Latin America: Statistics for NewPolicies.WIEGO (Women in Informal Employment: Globalizing and Organizing). June 2010. 12. United Nations. The Impact of COVID-19 on Women. 2020. 13. UNWomen, ILO, & ECLAC. Domestic Workers in Latin America and theCaribbeanduring theCOVID-19Crisis. 23 July 2020. 14. Vaillancourt-Laflamme, Catherine. “Trade Unions and Informal Workers’ Associations in the Urban Informal Economy of Ecuador.” SSRN , 11 January 2007. 15. World Bank. Unemployment, Female (% of Female Labor Force) (Modeled ILO Estimate)—Ecuador, Brazil. World Bank Data. 20 September 2020. We wish to thank the ILO and mentors from Lehigh University and Universidad San Francisco de Quito for their assistance on this Martindale Center and Lehigh University / United Nations Partnership Policy Brief project. Martindale Center for the Study of Private Enterprise Lehigh University College of Business Rauch Business Center, 621 Taylor Street Bethlehem, PA 18015 Tel: (610) 758-4771 / Fax: (610) 758-6549 Executive Director: Todd A. Watkins, Ph.D. Tel (610) 758-4954 / Fellowship Advising and United Nations Programs 32 Sayre Drive, Bethlehem, PA 18015 (610) 758-4977 / Director: Bill Hunter, Ph.D. Tel (610) 758-4505 /