85 and economic consequences far beyond anything currently experienced. Case study examinations of the Denali Park Road and TAPS clearly suggest that taking early and aggressive action is the best course to move forward. The current efforts of responsible entities are not satisfactory to deal with the massive scale and uncertainties due to permafrost degradation. Since the process of permafrost thaw is relatively slow, it is possible to plan a detailed course of action to tackle this issue. Both state and federal government agencies and private companies must be more actively involved in permafrost monitoring in order to create a local-scale infrastructure risk assessment program. Creating such a program will help prioritize strengthening or replacing those infrastructure systems that are more at risk, potentially reducing future economic impacts. As infrastructure ages, adaptative approaches are needed that focus on resilience to melting permafrost. In the long run, these efforts will better prepare Alaska to face the future challenges of permafrost thaw.