Perspectives on Business and Economics, Vol. 40

iii PERSPECTIVES Perspectives on Business and Economics is the journal of the Martindale Student Associates Honors Program founded and run by the Martindale Center for the Study of Private Enterprise at Lehigh University. A faculty panel selects 12 of Lehigh’s finest undergraduate students to become Martindale Student Associates. Each student undertakes research focusing on an aspect of the economy and business environment of a foreign nation or state and prepares an article for publication. The country or state changes each year. Alaska is a place of breathtaking beauty, rich in topics important to the US economy—a compelling opportunity for study during the pandemic. Orientation seminars with academic and industry leaders introduced the cohort to potential research topics. During the 14-day trip in August, the students learned about the Alaskan economy, Permanent Fund, project management in an arctic environment, education, land rights for indigenous communities, port security, cultural life of native Alaskans, wind turbines, peony and (legal) marijuana industries, tourism, politics and budget issues, marine life research, Valdez Marine Terminal management and oil spill, Trans-Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS), permafrost, gold mining, geothermal technology, rural Alaska, health care system, and climate change. By bus, boat, and train, the group covered 1057 miles within Alaska. The Martindale Alaska cohort continued their investigations during a visit to Washington, D.C., in late October. Students met with Congressman Don Young’s staff (R-Alaska); Alaska Public Media correspondent Liz Ruskin; and research fellows at the Energy Security and Climate Change Program of the Center for Strategic & International Studies. This journal is the culmination of the students’ research and hard work. Special Thanks The Martindale Center acknowledges the critical role played by alumni, parents, friends, and the many experts in Alaska who gave generously of their time and expertise as advisors and speakers to help make the 2021–2022 program and Volume 40 of this journal a success. We first must thank Olga Stewart '05 '06, senior environmental engineer at Geosyntec Consultants in Anchorage and Martindale alum (Spain), for her assistance throughout program planning, an informative session on the history of the Aleutian campaign and the cleanup of WWII sites in Alaska, and writing this volume’s introduction. Lehigh alumni Mike Cook '60, Dr. Marie Lowe '91, and Dr. Matthew Cullin '06, '09G, shared wisdom on their specialties with the students and helped make contacts. Also, a big thank you to Dr. Joseph Mixsell '67 '73G (in memoriam) and his wife Dr. LuAnn Piccard for hosting a dinner smorgasbord. Professor Piccard, chair of the project management department at the University of Alaska Anchorage, also arranged a meeting with arctic project management experts. Sincere thanks to Dr. Chad Briggs, former professor of international relations at Lehigh and current director of public policy and administration, College of Business and Public Policy, University of Alaska Anchorage. He hosted the group at the university, spoke about Alaska international security issues, led a hike, and provided connections to community leaders. Thanks too to those speakers: Willie Hensley, former U.S. Senator; Alaska state representatives Zack Fields and Liz Snyder; and Diana Hirshberg, vice-president academic at University of the Arctic. We also thank Lauren Mason, director of educational programs, Boys & Girls Clubs Alaska, for hosting lunch and sessions on Alaska’s educational system and income inequality. Special appreciation to Jason Bickling, former executive director of the Seward Chamber of Commerce, for connecting our group to tours and speakers there. Christy Terry, Seward mayor and manager of the Alaska Railroad Corporation Seward Terminal Reserve, gave a fabulous port tour. Kate Dugan, Valdez community and public relations manager for Alaska Pipeline Company, arranged speakers on safety practices and operations for Valdez Marine Terminal and TAPS. Thanks