Perspectives on Business and Economics, Vol. 40

14 Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act (1980) influenced the emergence of this system (Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys, 1983). Figure 1 shows the ownership breakdown of Alaska’s 375 million acres of land. The majority landowner is the federal government, with almost 60% of the land. Each federal entity imposes its own regulations on land use, which makes for guidelines that vary geographically (Division of Mining, Land & Water, 2000). In addition, land owned privately outside the native corporations is easiest to develop, but represents only about 1% of the total. Addressing the complexity of land ownership, regulation, and previous development is important for future projects. Land ownership in Alaska presents an impediment to energy development; unless land is privatelyowned, there oftenare additional barriers to expanding infrastructure. As seen in Figure 1, the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) controls a large share of Alaska’s federal land, which is encouraging. The BLM lists energy extraction as one of its primary managed resources, as such, lending itself to working well with energy. The BLM also has a history of allowing the use of land on a predetermined right-of-way, notably for the 800-mile Trans-Alaskan Pipeline (BLM Alaska, 2015). The Alaska Native Corporations privately own the resources on their land. As corporations, they are driven by profitability, so their interest in developing renewable energy resources depends on financial gain in addition to their land preservation goals, for cultural and environmental reasons. The Fire Island wind project is an example of renewable energy development on native land. The Cook Inlet Region, Inc. (CIRI) corporation signed a power purchase agreement with the Chugach Electric Association, facilitated by the Regulatory Commission of Alaska, to feed electricity from wind into the Railbelt grid (CIRI, 2017). These are two examples that show how renewable energy development can be successful in the face of land ownership challenges. Among the different land owners in Alaska, the BLM and private owners, including the Alaska Native Corporations, show promise for reducing barriers. On the other hand, more restrictive owners like the National Park Service, whose mission is to conserve the scenery and wildlife in the national parks for the enjoyment of future generations, could introduce greater barriers. Remoteness and Limited Road System The remoteness and limited road system of Alaska also present challenges to developing the state’s renewable energy resources. Two types of remoteness are exhibited in Alaska that increase these difficulties. Alaska as a whole is remote from Figure 1 Alaska Land Ownership Federal 59% State 28% Native Corps. 12% Regional Corporations 4.2% Village Corporations 6.9% Villages < 25 Population 0.6% Other 0.9% National Park Service 12.9% Bureau of Land Management 20.8% Forest Service 5.3% Fish and Wildlife Service 18.9% Source: Division of Mining, Land & Water, 2000.